Andukuro mu nsuo
What does research say?


    The following reference information provides theoretical and evaluation material related to cultural competence.


Benjamin, M. (1993). Child and Adolescent Service System Program Minority Initiative Research Monograph. Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University Child Development Center, CASSP Technical Assistance Center.

This document summarizes information and recommendations developed at an invitational CASSP meeting focused on minority–oriented research.  Topics include a discussion of the gaps in research development, community–based research, methodological issues, culture as a variable, bicultural identity, and issues related to minority families.



Cross, T., Bazron, B., Dennis, K., & Isaacs, M. (1989). Towards a culturally competent system of care, volume I. Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University Child Development Center, CASSP Technical Assistance Center.

This document is part of a two volume series on a culturally competent system of care.  The document provides a philosophical framework for such a system, identifies principles, and offers some practical ideas for improving service delivery at policy, administrative, and clinical levels to children of color who are severely emotionally disturbed.



Cross, T. L. (1995). Understanding family resiliency from a relational world view. In H. I. McCubbin, E. A. Thompson, A. I. Thompson, & J. E. Fromer (Eds.). Resiliency in ethnic minority families. Vol. I: Native and immigrant american families. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin System.

This document is a transcription of an oral presentation.  The author compares two major worldviews useful for understanding culture: 1) the linear world view, and 2) the relational worldview.  The author explores family resilience using contextual, mental, physical, spiritual, and interactional factors, and relates the necessity of integrating the relational worldview in services. 



Isaacs, M. and Benjamin, M. (1991). Towards a culturally competent system of care, volume II, programs which utilize culturally competent principles. Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University Child Development Center, CASSP Technical Assistance Center.

This volume of the two volume series describes programs that exemplify principles of cultural competence in serving children/families of color, includes background information, provides an analysis of crosscutting issues, and makes suggestions and recommendations for future directions.



D’Andrea, Daniels, J., and Heck, R. (1991). Evaluating the impact of multicultural counseling training. Journal of Counseling and Development,70, pp. 143–150.

This article describes the process of creating and validating a measure to assess the impact of cross–cultural training. The article contains the 60–item scale which is particularly useful for evaluating graduate level training. May prove useful for supervisors and trainers of mental health workers. Many of the items will generate positive discussions and elicit cross–cultural insights and practices of workers. The Multicultural Awareness–Knowledge–Skills Skills Survey (MAKSS) is largely built upon the works of such counseling psychology researchers as: Pedersen (1977, 1988, 1990); Sue, et al. (1982); Parker and McDavis (1979); Atkinson (1981, 1985); Atkinskon, et al. (1989), and others.



Davis, K. (1997). Exploring the intersection between cultural competency and managed behavioral health care policy: Implications for state and county mental health agencies. Alexandria, VA: National Technical Assistance Center for State Mental Health Planning.

This report is based on discussions that occurred during a two day National Mental health Policy Institute on Cultural Competency.  The conference took place on February 22–24, 1997 in Myrtle Beach, SC, and was co–sponsored by the South Carolina  Department of Mental Health's Cultural Affairs Program, the Ohio Department of Mental Health, and the National Association of State Mental Health Program Directors (NASMHPD).  The report is designed to provide practical assistance in considering the issues, challenges and benefits of strengthening the cultural competence of mental health staff and services.  Resources provided include a bibliography, selected technical assistance publications, and web sites.



Dengler, Claudia (1995). Cultural competence: Program self–assessment. Services to Children and Families. Amherst H. Wilder Foundation St. Paul, MN.

Very useful instrument for looking at several layers of an organization. The authors suggest they were attempting to examine service delivery, climate, and work force issues within a given organization. The tool is quite practical, easy to use, and contains many guides and tables. Should prove quite useful at the program or agency level.



Ho, Man Keung (1992). Minority Children and Adolescents in Therapy. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications.

This book contains the Ethnic–Competence–Skill Model in Psychological Interventions with Minority Ethnic Children and Youth measure (pp. 203–207). This scale is a 24–item measure that pays considerable attention to environmental stressors and issues for children of color. It appears very user friendly and has suggestions for attitudinal and practice dimensions. It is generally usable by professionals who are working with children and youth with serious emotional disabilities. Should prove very useful as an in–house staff development tool of for workshops. The measure has several subscales, including: pre–contact, problem identification, problem specification, mutual goal formation, problem solving, and termination.



Isaacs–Shockley, M. (In press). The State of the States: Responses to Cultural Competence and Diversity in Child Mental Health. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Child Development Center.



LaFromboise, T., Coleman, H. L. K., and Hernandez, A. (1991). Development and factor structure of the Cross–Cultural Counseling Inventory–Revised. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 22,(5), pp. 380–388.

    This article describes the development and testing of the Cross–Cultural Counseling Inventory–Revised (CCI–R). This scale, which originally appeared in the early 80’s, built upon the work of the APA Division 17 Education and Training Communities tri–dimensional characteristics of cross–cultural counseling competencies—beliefs/attitudes, knowledge, and skills (Sue, et al., 1982). This document is described in terms of its utility and future development. May be especially suited for counseling supervision, self–evaluation, and as cultural competence measure for researchers. Supervisors may find the CCI–R helpful as a tool for assessing the reciprocal influence of culturally different participants in the helping process.



Mason, J. L. (1995). The cultural competence self–assessment questionnaire: a manual for users. Portland Research and Training Center, Portland, Oregon.

    This monograph has proven useful to agencies that want to examine their ability to work cross culturally. There are versions for administrative and non–administrative personnel. The items are often suggestive of behaviors that workers can perform to reflect the cultural competence notion. This tool has been adapted and used within a variety of service disciplines.



Randall–David, Elizabeth. (1989). Strategies for working with culturally diverse communities and clients. The Association for the Care of Children’s Health.

A very useful monograph a number of self–study guides. The guides are intended to help one identify cultural biases, explore their cultural heritage, move more effectively within diverse communities and generally foster greater awareness of culture as a factor in the delivery of the health and human services.



Tirado, Miguel D. (1996). Tools for monitoring cultural competence in health care. Latino Coalition for a Healthy California, San Francisco, CA.

This document is a final report to the Office of Planning and Evaluation Health Resources Administration. It is very helpful as a process instrument and has considerable promise as a survey tool. There is some discussion of the psychometric properties of the instrument, however, it is very practical for professionals in various levels of employment. Most helpful are the brief discussions concerning each item.



Woody, Dale L. (1991). Recruitment and Retention of Minority Workers in Mental Health Programs. Washington, D.C.: National Institute of Mental Health, Human Resource Development Program.

This document contains several interesting sections concerning: demographic changes, roles of colleges and universities, planning for cultural competence, hiring issues, cultural competence assessment with study questions, and future trends in training, curriculum development, and staff development. This document builds largely upon the cultural competence model developed by CASSP and has a small annotated bibliography.


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